如何通俗的解释MD5加盐

MD5自身是不可逆的,但是目前网路上有很多数据库支持反查询。如果用户密码数据库不小心被泄露黑客就可以通过反查询方式获得用户密码或者对于数据库中出现频率较高的hash码(即很多人使用的)进行暴力破解(因为它通常都是弱口令)。

盐值就是在密码hash过程中添加的额外的随机值,比如我的id是abc,密码是123456,存在数据库中的时候就可以对字符串123456idabc进行hash,而验证密码的时候也以字符串(要验证的密码)+idabc进行验证。

这样有另外一个用户密码是123456的时候,依然能构造出不同的hash值,并且能成功的验证,但这时候我的id就作为盐值为密码进行复杂hash了。

可见,盐值最大的作用之一就是减少数据库泄露带来的损失。

Webmin搭建说明

1、下载安装包

wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.840_all.deb

2、安装依赖包

apt-get install perl libnet-ssleay-perl openssl libauthen-pam-perl libpam-runtime libio-pty-perl apt-show-versions python libapt-pkg-perl

3、安装webmin

dpkg --install webmin_1.840_all.deb

4、访问地址http://localhost:10000/
用户名:root,密码:系统root密码

VirtualBox的几种联网方式

VirtualBox有四种联网方式:

NAT:
虚拟机通过网络地址转换协议来访问宿主机网络,虚拟机可以访问宿主机可以访问的所有网络
宿主机和虚拟机之间无法通讯
而在宿主机局域网其他主机看来,虚拟机是不存在的
虚拟机之间不可以相互访问

Bridged:
虚拟机通过桥接,把自己虚拟为宿主机同一局域网的一台设备,虚拟机可以访问宿主机可以访问的所有网络
对于宿主机来说,虚拟机就是同一局域网的一台设备
而在宿主机局域网其他主机看来,虚拟机就是同一局域网的一台设备
虚拟机之间可以相互访问

HostOnly:
虚拟机宿主机可以相互访问,默认虚拟机不可以访问宿主机所在网络(宿主机可以共享网络给虚拟机,但一般不会这么用)。
虚拟机之间可以相互访问

Internal:
只有虚拟机之间可以相互访问。

具体情况如下(假设网段设置都正确):

通讯 Internal HostOnly NAT Bridge
虚拟机到宿主机 NO YES YES YES
宿主机到虚拟机 NO YES NO YES,部分网络服务受限
虚拟机到其他主机 NO NO YES YES,部分网络服务受限
其他主机到虚拟机 NO NO NO YES
虚拟机到虚拟机 YES YES NO YES

如何为不再有更新支持的Debain6安装软件

Debain6已经没有更新支持了

#会提示找不到更新源
apt-get update

为了继续按照软件,需要做两件事情:
1、修改/etc/apt/sources.list文件

# deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ squeeze-updates main contrib
# deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze contrib non-free main
# deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ squeeze-updates main contrib
deb http://archive.debian.org/debian squeeze main
deb http://archive.debian.org/debian squeeze-lts main

2、增加/etc/apt/apt.conf文件

Acquire::Check-Valid-Until false;

VBoxManage常用命令

1、常用命令

#列出全部虚拟机
VBoxManage list vms
#列出全部运行中的虚拟机
VBoxManage list runningvms
#列出虚拟机信息
VBoxManage showvminfo uuid|vmname
#开启虚拟机
VBoxManage startvm uuid|vmname
#开启虚拟机,无GUI模式
VBoxManage startvm uuid|vmname --type headless
#暂停虚拟机
VBoxManage controlvm uuid|vmname pause
#继续运行虚拟机
VBoxManage controlvm uuid|vmname resume
#按下机箱重启按钮
VBoxManage controlvm uuid|vmname reset
#断电
VBoxManage controlvm uuid|vmname poweroff
#按下机箱电影按钮
VBoxManage controlvm uuid|vmname acpipowerbutton
#按下机箱睡眠按钮
VBoxManage controlvm uuid|vmname acpisleepbutton

2、全部参数

Oracle VM VirtualBox Command Line Management Interface Version 4.3.10
(C) 2005-2014 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

Usage:

  VBoxManage [<general option>] <command>
 
 
General Options:
 
  [-v|--version]            print version number and exit
  [-q|--nologo]             suppress the logo
  [--settingspw <pw>]       provide the settings password
  [--settingspwfile <file>] provide a file containing the settings password
 
 
Commands:
 
  list [--long|-l]          vms|runningvms|ostypes|hostdvds|hostfloppies|
                            intnets|bridgedifs|hostonlyifs|natnets|dhcpservers|
                            hostinfo|hostcpuids|hddbackends|hdds|dvds|floppies|
                            usbhost|usbfilters|systemproperties|extpacks|
                            groups|webcams

  showvminfo                <uuid|vmname> [--details]
                            [--machinereadable]
  showvminfo                <uuid|vmname> --log <idx>

  registervm                <filename>

  unregistervm              <uuid|vmname> [--delete]

  createvm                  --name <name>
                            [--groups <group>, ...]
                            [--ostype <ostype>]
                            [--register]
                            [--basefolder <path>]
                            [--uuid <uuid>]

  modifyvm                  <uuid|vmname>
                            [--name <name>]
                            [--groups <group>, ...]
                            [--ostype <ostype>]
                            [--iconfile <filename>]
                            [--memory <memorysize in MB>]
                            [--pagefusion on|off]
                            [--vram <vramsize in MB>]
                            [--acpi on|off]
                            [--pciattach 03:04.0]
                            [--pciattach 03:04.0@02:01.0]
                            [--pcidetach 03:04.0]
                            [--ioapic on|off]
                            [--hpet on|off]
                            [--triplefaultreset on|off]
                            [--hwvirtex on|off]
                            [--nestedpaging on|off]
                            [--largepages on|off]
                            [--vtxvpid on|off]
                            [--vtxux on|off]
                            [--pae on|off]
                            [--longmode on|off]
                            [--synthcpu on|off]
                            [--cpuidset <leaf> <eax> <ebx> <ecx> <edx>]
                            [--cpuidremove <leaf>]
                            [--cpuidremoveall]
                            [--hardwareuuid <uuid>]
                            [--cpus <number>]
                            [--cpuhotplug on|off]
                            [--plugcpu <id>]
                            [--unplugcpu <id>]
                            [--cpuexecutioncap <1-100>]
                            [--rtcuseutc on|off]
                            [--graphicscontroller none|vboxvga|vmsvga]
                            [--monitorcount <number>]
                            [--accelerate3d on|off]
                            [--accelerate2dvideo on|off]
                            [--firmware bios|efi|efi32|efi64]
                            [--chipset ich9|piix3]
                            [--bioslogofadein on|off]
                            [--bioslogofadeout on|off]
                            [--bioslogodisplaytime <msec>]
                            [--bioslogoimagepath <imagepath>]
                            [--biosbootmenu disabled|menuonly|messageandmenu]
                            [--biossystemtimeoffset <msec>]
                            [--biospxedebug on|off]
                            [--boot<1-4> none|floppy|dvd|disk|net>]
                            [--nic<1-N> none|null|nat|bridged|intnet|hostonly|
                                        generic|natnetwork]
                            [--nictype<1-N> Am79C970A|Am79C973|
                                            82540EM|82543GC|82545EM|
                                            virtio]
                            [--cableconnected<1-N> on|off]
                            [--nictrace<1-N> on|off]
                            [--nictracefile<1-N> <filename>]
                            [--nicproperty<1-N> name=[value]]
                            [--nicspeed<1-N> <kbps>]
                            [--nicbootprio<1-N> <priority>]
                            [--nicpromisc<1-N> deny|allow-vms|allow-all]
                            [--nicbandwidthgroup<1-N> none|<name>]
                            [--bridgeadapter<1-N> none|<devicename>]
                            [--hostonlyadapter<1-N> none|<devicename>]
                            [--intnet<1-N> <network name>]
                            [--nat-network<1-N> <network name>]
                            [--nicgenericdrv<1-N> <driver>
                            [--natnet<1-N> <network>|default]
                            [--natsettings<1-N> [<mtu>],[<socksnd>],
                                                [<sockrcv>],[<tcpsnd>],
                                                [<tcprcv>]]
                            [--natpf<1-N> [<rulename>],tcp|udp,[<hostip>],
                                          <hostport>,[<guestip>],<guestport>]
                            [--natpf<1-N> delete <rulename>]
                            [--nattftpprefix<1-N> <prefix>]
                            [--nattftpfile<1-N> <file>]
                            [--nattftpserver<1-N> <ip>]
                            [--natbindip<1-N> <ip>
                            [--natdnspassdomain<1-N> on|off]
                            [--natdnsproxy<1-N> on|off]
                            [--natdnshostresolver<1-N> on|off]
                            [--nataliasmode<1-N> default|[log],[proxyonly],
                                                         [sameports]]
                            [--macaddress<1-N> auto|<mac>]
                            [--mouse ps2|usb|usbtablet|usbmultitouch]
                            [--keyboard ps2|usb
                            [--uart<1-N> off|<I/O base> <IRQ>]
                            [--uartmode<1-N> disconnected|
                                             server <pipe>|
                                             client <pipe>|
                                             file <file>|
                                             <devicename>]
                            [--lpt<1-N> off|<I/O base> <IRQ>]
                            [--lptmode<1-N> <devicename>]
                            [--guestmemoryballoon <balloonsize in MB>]
                            [--audio none|null|dsound]
                            [--audiocontroller ac97|hda|sb16]
                            [--clipboard disabled|hosttoguest|guesttohost|
                                         bidirectional]
                            [--draganddrop disabled|hosttoguest
                            [--vrde on|off]
                            [--vrdeextpack default|<name>
                            [--vrdeproperty <name=[value]>]
                            [--vrdeport <hostport>]
                            [--vrdeaddress <hostip>]
                            [--vrdeauthtype null|external|guest]
                            [--vrdeauthlibrary default|<name>
                            [--vrdemulticon on|off]
                            [--vrdereusecon on|off]
                            [--vrdevideochannel on|off]
                            [--vrdevideochannelquality <percent>]
                            [--usb on|off]
                            [--usbehci on|off]
                            [--snapshotfolder default|<path>]
                            [--teleporter on|off]
                            [--teleporterport <port>]
                            [--teleporteraddress <address|empty>
                            [--teleporterpassword <password>]
                            [--teleporterpasswordfile <file>|stdin]
                            [--tracing-enabled on|off]
                            [--tracing-config <config-string>]
                            [--tracing-allow-vm-access on|off]
                            [--usbcardreader on|off]
                            [--autostart-enabled on|off]
                            [--autostart-delay <seconds>]
                            [--vcpenabled on|off]
                            [--vcpscreens [<display>],...
                            [--vcpfile <filename>]
                            [--vcpwidth <width>]
                            [--vcpheight <height>]
                            [--vcprate <rate>]
                            [--vcpfps <fps>]
                            [--defaultfrontend default|<name>]

  clonevm                   <uuid|vmname>
                            [--snapshot <uuid>|<name>]
                            [--mode machine|machineandchildren|all]
                            [--options link|keepallmacs|keepnatmacs|
                                       keepdisknames]
                            [--name <name>]
                            [--groups <group>, ...]
                            [--basefolder <basefolder>]
                            [--uuid <uuid>]
                            [--register]

  import                    <ovfname/ovaname>
                            [--dry-run|-n]
                            [--options keepallmacs|keepnatmacs]
                            [more options]
                            (run with -n to have options displayed
                             for a particular OVF)

  export                    <machines> --output|-o <name>.<ovf/ova>
                            [--legacy09|--ovf09|--ovf10|--ovf20]
                            [--manifest]
                            [--iso]
                            [--options manifest|iso|nomacs|nomacsbutnat]
                            [--vsys <number of virtual system>]
                                    [--product <product name>]
                                    [--producturl <product url>]
                                    [--vendor <vendor name>]
                                    [--vendorurl <vendor url>]
                                    [--version <version info>]
                                    [--description <description info>]
                                    [--eula <license text>]
                                    [--eulafile <filename>]

  startvm                   <uuid|vmname>...
                            [--type gui|sdl|headless]

  controlvm                 <uuid|vmname>
                            pause|resume|reset|poweroff|savestate|
                            acpipowerbutton|acpisleepbutton|
                            keyboardputscancode <hex> [<hex> ...]|
                            setlinkstate<1-N> on|off |
                            nic<1-N> null|nat|bridged|intnet|hostonly|generic|
                                     natnetwork [<devicename>] |
                            nictrace<1-N> on|off |
                            nictracefile<1-N> <filename> |
                            nicproperty<1-N> name=[value] |
                            nicpromisc<1-N> deny|allow-vms|allow-all |
                            natpf<1-N> [<rulename>],tcp|udp,[<hostip>],
                                        <hostport>,[<guestip>],<guestport> |
                            natpf<1-N> delete <rulename> |
                            guestmemoryballoon <balloonsize in MB> |
                            usbattach <uuid>|<address> |
                            usbdetach <uuid>|<address> |
                            clipboard disabled|hosttoguest|guesttohost|
                                      bidirectional |
                            draganddrop disabled|hosttoguest |
                            vrde on|off |
                            vrdeport <port> |
                            vrdeproperty <name=[value]> |
                            vrdevideochannelquality <percent> |
                            setvideomodehint <xres> <yres> <bpp>
                                            [[<display>] [<enabled:yes|no> |
                                              [<xorigin> <yorigin>]]] |
                            screenshotpng <file> [display] |
                            vcpenabled on|off |
                            vcpscreens all|none|<screen>,[<screen>...] |
                            setcredentials <username>
                                           --passwordfile <file> | <password>
                                           <domain>
                                           [--allowlocallogon <yes|no>] |
                            teleport --host <name> --port <port>
                                     [--maxdowntime <msec>]
                                     [--passwordfile <file> |
                                      --password <password>] |
                            plugcpu <id> |
                            unplugcpu <id> |
                            cpuexecutioncap <1-100>
                            webcam <attach [path [settings]]> | <detach [path]> | <list>

  discardstate              <uuid|vmname>

  adoptstate                <uuid|vmname> <state_file>

  snapshot                  <uuid|vmname>
                            take <name> [--description <desc>] [--live] |
                            delete <uuid|snapname> |
                            restore <uuid|snapname> |
                            restorecurrent |
                            edit <uuid|snapname>|--current
                                 [--name <name>]
                                 [--description <desc>] |
                            list [--details|--machinereadable]
                            showvminfo <uuid|snapname>

  closemedium               disk|dvd|floppy <uuid|filename>
                            [--delete]

  storageattach             <uuid|vmname>
                            --storagectl <name>
                            [--port <number>]
                            [--device <number>]
                            [--type dvddrive|hdd|fdd]
                            [--medium none|emptydrive|additions|
                                      <uuid|filename>|host:<drive>|iscsi]
                            [--mtype normal|writethrough|immutable|shareable|
                                     readonly|multiattach]
                            [--comment <text>]
                            [--setuuid <uuid>]
                            [--setparentuuid <uuid>]
                            [--passthrough on|off]
                            [--tempeject on|off]
                            [--nonrotational on|off]
                            [--discard on|off]
                            [--bandwidthgroup <name>]
                            [--forceunmount]
                            [--server <name>|<ip>]
                            [--target <target>]
                            [--tport <port>]
                            [--lun <lun>]
                            [--encodedlun <lun>]
                            [--username <username>]
                            [--password <password>]
                            [--initiator <initiator>]
                            [--intnet]

  storagectl                <uuid|vmname>
                            --name <name>
                            [--add ide|sata|scsi|floppy|sas]
                            [--controller LSILogic|LSILogicSAS|BusLogic|
                                          IntelAHCI|PIIX3|PIIX4|ICH6|I82078]
                            [--portcount <1-30>]
                            [--hostiocache on|off]
                            [--bootable on|off]
                            [--remove]

  bandwidthctl              <uuid|vmname>
                            add <name> --type disk|network
                                --limit <megabytes per second>[k|m|g|K|M|G] |
                            set <name>
                                --limit <megabytes per second>[k|m|g|K|M|G] |
                            remove <name> |
                            list [--machinereadable]
                            (limit units: k=kilobit, m=megabit, g=gigabit,
                                          K=kilobyte, M=megabyte, G=gigabyte)

  showhdinfo                <uuid|filename>

  createhd                  --filename <filename>
                            [--size <megabytes>|--sizebyte <bytes>]
                            [--diffparent <uuid>|<filename>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD] (default: VDI)
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]

  modifyhd                  <uuid|filename>
                            [--type normal|writethrough|immutable|shareable|
                                    readonly|multiattach]
                            [--autoreset on|off]
                            [--property <name=[value]>]
                            [--compact]
                            [--resize <megabytes>|--resizebyte <bytes>]

  clonehd                   <uuid|inputfile> <uuid|outputfile>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD|RAW|<other>]
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                            [--existing]

  convertfromraw            <filename> <outputfile>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD]
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                            [--uuid <uuid>]
  convertfromraw            stdin <outputfile> <bytes>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD]
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                            [--uuid <uuid>]

  getextradata              global|<uuid|vmname>
                            <key>|enumerate

  setextradata              global|<uuid|vmname>
                            <key>
                            [<value>] (no value deletes key)

  setproperty               machinefolder default|<folder> |
                            hwvirtexclusive on|off |
                            vrdeauthlibrary default|<library> |
                            websrvauthlibrary default|null|<library> |
                            vrdeextpack null|<library> |
                            autostartdbpath null|<folder> |
                            loghistorycount <value>
                            defaultfrontend default|<name>

  usbfilter                 add <index,0-N>
                            --target <uuid|vmname>|global
                            --name <string>
                            --action ignore|hold (global filters only)
                            [--active yes|no] (yes)
                            [--vendorid <XXXX>] (null)
                            [--productid <XXXX>] (null)
                            [--revision <IIFF>] (null)
                            [--manufacturer <string>] (null)
                            [--product <string>] (null)
                            [--remote yes|no] (null, VM filters only)
                            [--serialnumber <string>] (null)
                            [--maskedinterfaces <XXXXXXXX>]

  usbfilter                 modify <index,0-N>
                            --target <uuid|vmname>|global
                            [--name <string>]
                            [--action ignore|hold] (global filters only)
                            [--active yes|no]
                            [--vendorid <XXXX>|""]
                            [--productid <XXXX>|""]
                            [--revision <IIFF>|""]
                            [--manufacturer <string>|""]
                            [--product <string>|""]
                            [--remote yes|no] (null, VM filters only)
                            [--serialnumber <string>|""]
                            [--maskedinterfaces <XXXXXXXX>]

  usbfilter                 remove <index,0-N>
                            --target <uuid|vmname>|global

  sharedfolder              add <uuid|vmname>
                            --name <name> --hostpath <hostpath>
                            [--transient] [--readonly] [--automount]

  sharedfolder              remove <uuid|vmname>
                            --name <name> [--transient]

  guestproperty             get <uuid|vmname>
                            <property> [--verbose]

  guestproperty             set <uuid|vmname>
                            <property> [<value> [--flags <flags>]]

  guestproperty             delete|unset <uuid|vmname>
                            <property>

  guestproperty             enumerate <uuid|vmname>
                            [--patterns <patterns>]

  guestproperty             wait <uuid|vmname> <patterns>
                            [--timeout <msec>] [--fail-on-timeout]

  guestcontrol              <uuid|vmname>

                              exec[ute]
                              --image <path to program> --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--verbose] [--timeout <msec>]
                              [--environment "<NAME>=<VALUE> [<NAME>=<VALUE>]"]
                              [--wait-exit] [--wait-stdout] [--wait-stderr]
                              [--dos2unix] [--unix2dos]
                              [-- [<argument1>] ... [<argumentN>]]

                              copyfrom
                              <guest source> <host dest> --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--verbose]
                              [--dryrun] [--follow] [--recursive]

                              copyto|cp
                              <host source> <guest dest> --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--verbose]
                              [--dryrun] [--follow] [--recursive]

                              createdir[ectory]|mkdir|md
                              <guest directory>... --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--verbose]
                              [--parents] [--mode <mode>]

                              removedir[ectory]|rmdir
                              <guest directory>... --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--verbose]
                              [--recursive|-R|-r]

                              removefile|rm
                              <guest file>... --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--verbose]

                              ren[ame]|mv
                              <source>... <dest> --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--verbose]

                              createtemp[orary]|mktemp
                              <template> --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--directory] [--secure] [--tmpdir <directory>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--mode <mode>] [--verbose]

                              list <all|sessions|processes|files> [--verbose]

                              process kill --session-id <ID>
                                           | --session-name <name or pattern>
                                           [--verbose]
                                           <PID> ... <PID n>

                              [p[s]]kill --session-id <ID>
                                         | --session-name <name or pattern>
                                         [--verbose]
                                         <PID> ... <PID n>

                              session close  --session-id <ID>
                                           | --session-name <name or pattern>
                                           | --all
                                           [--verbose]

                              stat
                              <file>... --username <name>
                              [--passwordfile <file> | --password <password>]
                              [--domain <domain>] [--verbose]

                              updateadditions
                              [--source <guest additions .ISO>] [--verbose]
                              [--wait-start]
                              [-- [<argument1>] ... [<argumentN>]]

                              watch [--verbose]

  debugvm                   <uuid|vmname>
                            dumpguestcore --filename <name> |
                            info <item> [args] |
                            injectnmi |
                            log [--release|--debug] <settings> ...|
                            logdest [--release|--debug] <settings> ...|
                            logflags [--release|--debug] <settings> ...|
                            osdetect |
                            osinfo |
                            getregisters [--cpu <id>] <reg>|all ... |
                            setregisters [--cpu <id>] <reg>=<value> ... |
                            show [--human-readable|--sh-export|--sh-eval|
                                  --cmd-set] 
                                <logdbg-settings|logrel-settings>
                                [[opt] what ...] |
                            statistics [--reset] [--pattern <pattern>]
                            [--descriptions]

  metrics                   list [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]
                                                 (comma-separated)

  metrics                   setup
                            [--period <seconds>] (default: 1)
                            [--samples <count>] (default: 1)
                            [--list]
                            [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

  metrics                   query [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

  metrics                   enable
                            [--list]
                            [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

  metrics                   disable
                            [--list]
                            [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

  metrics                   collect
                            [--period <seconds>] (default: 1)
                            [--samples <count>] (default: 1)
                            [--list]
                            [--detach]
                            [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

  natnetwork                add --netname <name>
                            --network <network>
                            [--enable|--disable]
                            [--dhcp on|off]
                            [--port-forward-4 <rule>]
                            [--loopback-4 <rule>]
                            [--ipv6 on|off]
                            [--port-forward-6 <rule>]
                            [--loopback-6 <rule>]

  natnetwork                remove --netname <name>

  natnetwork                modify --netname <name>
                            [--network <network>]
                            [--enable|--disable]
                            [--dhcp on|off]
                            [--port-forward-4 <rule>]
                            [--loopback-4 <rule>]
                            [--ipv6 on|off]
                            [--port-forward-6 <rule>]
                            [--loopback-6 <rule>]

  natnetwork                start --netname <name>

  natnetwork                stop --netname <name>

  hostonlyif                ipconfig <name>
                            [--dhcp |
                            --ip<ipv4> [--netmask<ipv4> (def: 255.255.255.0)] |
                            --ipv6<ipv6> [--netmasklengthv6<length> (def: 64)]]
                            create |
                            remove <name>

  dhcpserver                add|modify --netname <network_name> |
                                       --ifname <hostonly_if_name>
                            [--ip <ip_address>
                            --netmask <network_mask>
                            --lowerip <lower_ip>
                            --upperip <upper_ip>]
                            [--enable | --disable]

  dhcpserver                remove --netname <network_name> |
                                   --ifname <hostonly_if_name>

  extpack                   install [--replace] <tarball> |
                            uninstall [--force] <name> |
                            cleanup

Windows创建符号连接

1、mklink
该命令可以创建符号链接、硬链接及快捷方式。

MKLINK [[/D] | [/H] | [/J]] Link Target

        /D      Creates a directory symbolic link.  Default is a file
                symbolic link.
        /H      Creates a hard link instead of a symbolic link.
        /J      Creates a Directory Junction.
        Link    specifies the new symbolic link name.
        Target  specifies the path (relative or absolute) that the new link
                refers to.

2、fsutil hardlink
该命令可以创建硬链接。

create          Create a hardlink
list            Enumerate hardlinks on a file

3、junction
该工具是SYSINTERNALS提供的,可以新增或删除符号链接。

The first usage is for displaying reparse point information, the
second usage is for creating a junction point, and the last for
deleting a junction point:
usage: junction.exe [-s] [-q] <file or directory>
       -q     Don't print error messages (quiet)
       -s     Recurse subdirectories

usage: junction.exe <junction directory> <junction target>
       example: junction d:\link c:\windows

usage: junction.exe -d <junction directory>

JMX获取Tomcat管理信息

1、首先配置JVM
JVM要放到NTFS卷中,在JVM路径下找到jmxremote.access及jmxremote.password.template两个文件。
将jmxremote.password.template复制一份为jmxremote.password,对运行用户可读,对普通用户不可读。

2、配置Tomcat启动参数
修改catalina.bat,增加下面一行

SET "JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=8686 -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true"

3、启动Tomcat

4、客户端程序JMXInfo.java

package com.neohope.jmx.test;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.lang.management.MemoryUsage;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import java.math.RoundingMode;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Formatter;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Set;

import javax.management.MBeanServerConnection;
import javax.management.ObjectInstance;
import javax.management.ObjectName;
import javax.management.openmbean.CompositeDataSupport;
import javax.management.remote.JMXConnector;
import javax.management.remote.JMXConnectorFactory;
import javax.management.remote.JMXServiceURL;

public class JMXInfo {
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		JMXConnector connector = null;
		try {
			// 获取JMX连接
			String ip = "127.0.0.1";
			String port = "8686";
			JMXServiceURL serviceURL = new JMXServiceURL("service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://" + ip + ":" + port + "/jmxrmi");
			Map<String, String[]> map = new HashMap<String, String[]>();
			String[] credentials = new String[] { "controlRole", "R&D" };
			map.put("jmx.remote.credentials", credentials);
			connector = JMXConnectorFactory.connect(serviceURL, map);
			MBeanServerConnection mbsc = connector.getMBeanServerConnection();

			// 获取JVM信息
			ObjectName runtimeObjName = new ObjectName("java.lang:type=Runtime");
			System.out.println("厂商:" + (String) mbsc.getAttribute(runtimeObjName, "VmVendor"));
			System.out.println("程序:" + (String) mbsc.getAttribute(runtimeObjName, "VmName"));
			System.out.println("版本:" + (String) mbsc.getAttribute(runtimeObjName, "VmVersion"));
			
			// 获取JVM运行时间
			Date starttime = new Date((Long) mbsc.getAttribute(runtimeObjName, "StartTime"));
			SimpleDateFormat df = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss");
			System.out.println("启动时间:" + df.format(starttime));
			Long timespan = (Long) mbsc.getAttribute(runtimeObjName, "Uptime");
			System.out.println("持续工作时间:" + JMXInfo.formatTimeSpan(timespan));

			// 获取JVM内存信息
			ObjectName heapObjName = new ObjectName("java.lang:type=Memory");
			MemoryUsage heapMemoryUsage = MemoryUsage.from((CompositeDataSupport) mbsc.getAttribute(heapObjName, "HeapMemoryUsage"));
			long heapMaxMemory = heapMemoryUsage.getMax();
			long heapCommitMemory = heapMemoryUsage.getCommitted();
			long heapUsedMemory = heapMemoryUsage.getUsed();
			System.out.println("heap:" + (double) heapUsedMemory * 100 / heapCommitMemory + "%");

			MemoryUsage nonheapMemoryUsage = MemoryUsage.from((CompositeDataSupport) mbsc.getAttribute(heapObjName, "NonHeapMemoryUsage"));
			long nonHeapCommitMemory = nonheapMemoryUsage.getCommitted();
			long nonHeapUsedMemory = heapMemoryUsage.getUsed();
			System.out.println("nonheap:" + (double) nonHeapUsedMemory * 100 / nonHeapCommitMemory + "%");

			ObjectName permObjName = new ObjectName("java.lang:type=MemoryPool,name=Perm Gen");
			MemoryUsage permGenUsage = MemoryUsage.from((CompositeDataSupport) mbsc.getAttribute(permObjName, "Usage"));
			long permCommitted = permGenUsage.getCommitted();
			long permUsed = heapMemoryUsage.getUsed();
			System.out.println("perm gen:" + (double) permUsed * 100 / permCommitted + "%");
			
			// All Domains
			for (int j = 0; j < mbsc.getDomains().length; j++) {
				System.out.println(mbsc.getDomains()[j]);
			}
			
			// All MBeans
			Set<ObjectInstance> MBeanset = mbsc.queryMBeans(null, null);
			System.out.println("MBeanset.size() : " + MBeanset.size());
			Iterator<ObjectInstance> MBeansetIterator = MBeanset.iterator();
			while (MBeansetIterator.hasNext()) {
				ObjectInstance objectInstance = (ObjectInstance) MBeansetIterator.next();
				ObjectName objectName = objectInstance.getObjectName();
				String canonicalName = objectName.getCanonicalName();
				System.out.println("canonicalName : " + canonicalName);
			}
			
			// 全部线程池
			ObjectName threadpoolObjName = new ObjectName("Catalina:type=ThreadPool,*");
			Set<ObjectName> s2 = mbsc.queryNames(threadpoolObjName, null);
			for (ObjectName obj : s2) {
				System.out.println("端口名:" + obj.getKeyProperty("name"));
				ObjectName objname = new ObjectName(obj.getCanonicalName());
				System.out.println("最大线程数:" + mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "maxThreads"));
				System.out.println("当前线程数:" + mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "currentThreadCount"));
				System.out.println("繁忙线程数:" + mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "currentThreadsBusy"));
			}
			
			//HTTP Thread Pool
			ObjectName threadPoolObjName = new ObjectName("Catalina:type=ThreadPool,*");
			Set<ObjectName> threadPoolObjNames = mbsc.queryNames(threadPoolObjName, null);
			for (ObjectName obj : threadPoolObjNames) {
				if (obj.getKeyProperty("name").contains("http")) {
					ObjectName objname = new ObjectName(obj.getCanonicalName());
					System.out.println("HTTP最大线程数:"+ mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "maxThreads").toString());// 最大线程数
					System.out.println("HTTP当前线程数:"+ mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "currentThreadCount").toString());// 当前线程数
					System.out.println("HTTP繁忙线程数:" + mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "currentThreadsBusy").toString());// 繁忙线程数
				}
			}

			// 全部应用
			ObjectName managerObjName = new ObjectName("Catalina:type=Manager,*");
			Set<ObjectName> s = mbsc.queryNames(managerObjName, null);
			for (ObjectName obj : s) {
				System.out.println("应用名:" + obj.getKeyProperty("path"));
				ObjectName objname = new ObjectName(obj.getCanonicalName());
				System.out.println("最大会话数:" + mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "maxActiveSessions"));
				System.out.println("会话数:" + mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "activeSessions"));
				System.out.println("活动会话数:" + mbsc.getAttribute(objname, "sessionCounter"));
			}
			
			
			//RequestProcessor
			ObjectName requestObjName = new ObjectName("Catalina:type=RequestProcessor,*");
			Set<ObjectName> requestObjNameSet = mbsc.queryNames(requestObjName, null);
			Integer aliveSocketsCount = 0;
			Long maxProcessingTime = 0L;
			Long processingTime = 0L;
			Long requstCount = 0L;
			Long errorCount = 0L;
			BigDecimal bytesReceived = BigDecimal.ZERO;
			BigDecimal bytesSend = BigDecimal.ZERO;
			for (ObjectName obj : requestObjNameSet) {
				if (mbsc.getAttribute(obj, "stage").toString().trim().equals("1"))
					aliveSocketsCount++;
				long nowMaxProcessingTime = Long.parseLong(mbsc.getAttribute(obj, "maxTime").toString());
				if (maxProcessingTime < nowMaxProcessingTime)
					maxProcessingTime = nowMaxProcessingTime;
				processingTime += Long.parseLong(mbsc.getAttribute(obj, "processingTime").toString());
				requstCount += Long.parseLong(mbsc.getAttribute(obj, "requestCount").toString());
				errorCount += Long.parseLong(mbsc.getAttribute(obj, "errorCount").toString());
				bytesReceived = bytesReceived.add(new BigDecimal(mbsc.getAttribute(obj, "bytesReceived").toString()));
				bytesSend = bytesSend.add(new BigDecimal(mbsc.getAttribute(obj, "bytesSent").toString()));
			}
			System.out.println("活动sockets计数:"+ aliveSocketsCount.toString());
			System.out.println("最大处理时间:"+ maxProcessingTime.toString());
			processingTime = processingTime / 1000;
			System.out.println("总处理时间:"+ processingTime.toString());
			System.out.println("请求总数:"+ requstCount.toString());
			System.out.println("错误总数:"+ errorCount.toString());
			System.out.println("接收字节数:"+ bytesReceived.divide(new BigDecimal(1024L * 1024))
					.setScale(2, RoundingMode.HALF_UP).toPlainString());
			System.out.println("发送字节数:"+
					bytesSend.divide(new BigDecimal(1024L * 1024)).setScale(2, RoundingMode.HALF_UP).toPlainString());

		} catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		finally
		{
			if(connector!=null)
			{
				try {
					connector.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
				}
			}
		}
		
	}

	public static String formatTimeSpan(long span) {
		long minseconds = span % 1000;

		span = span / 1000;
		long seconds = span % 60;

		span = span / 60;
		long mins = span % 60;

		span = span / 60;
		long hours = span % 24;

		span = span / 24;
		long days = span;
		return (new Formatter()).format("%1$d天 %2$02d小时%3$02d分%4$02d秒%5$03d毫秒", days, hours, mins, seconds, minseconds)
				.toString();
	}
}

5.运行结果

厂商:Oracle Corporation
程序:Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM
版本:24.65-b04
启动时间:2016-06-21 20:57:37
持续工作时间:0天 00小时29分31秒018毫秒
heap:60.11998789417739%
nonheap:54.523986450299915%
perm gen:165.7018025716146%
Users
JMImplementation
com.sun.management
Catalina
java.nio
java.lang
java.util.logging
MBeanset.size() : 150
canonicalName : Catalina:J2EEApplication=none,J2EEServer=none,WebModule=//localhost/manager,j2eeType=Servlet,name=HTMLManager
canonicalName : Catalina:J2EEApplication=none,J2EEServer=none,WebModule=//localhost/manager,j2eeType=Servlet,name=Manager
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Tomcat指定native library路径

一般,指定JVM的native library路径,只需要用下面的参数就好了

-Djava.library.path=PATH_TO_NATIVE_LIBRARY

Tomcat指定native library路径时,还是不要使用这边参数的好。
建议直接修改PATH环境变量,将dll或so放到环境变量PATH的路径下就好了。
TOMCAT默认将PATH赋值给-Djava.library.path参数的。